Dangerous goods are substances and objects that can when
transported cause harm to people, animals, the environment or
property if not handled properly.
Dangerous goods are categorised into the following classes:
||Explosive substances and articles (e.g. fireworks,
||Gases (e.g. oxygen, carbon dioxide)
||Flammable liquids (e.g. petrol, ethanol)
||Flammable solids (e.g. matches, metal powder)
||Substances liable to spontaneous combustion (e.g. coal, fish
||Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases
(e.g. potassium, Magnesium powder)
||Oxidizing substances1) (e.g. ammonium nitrate,
||Organic peroxides2) (e.g. dibenzoylperoxide,
||Toxic substances (e.g. mercury compounds, cyanides)
||Infectious substances (e.g. bacteria, live virus, laboratory
||Radioactive materials (e.g. uranium, hexafluoride,
||Corrosive substances (e.g. batteries, acetic acid)
||Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles (e.g.
environmentally hazardous substances, asbestos)
||Products that have properties that pollute water
(Marine Pollutants) shall be classified in one of the
preceding classes, but shall also be handled and
“classified” as water pollutants when carried on
ships. If the product has no dangerous properties other than
it is a marine pollutant, it shall be classified as Class 9.
1) Substances that even if they are not necessarily inherently
flammable can as a rule cause or contribute to the combustion of
other materials by emitting oxygen.
2) Organic peroxides are thermically unstable substances that can
undergo exothermal self-accelerating decomposition, burn rapidly,
be sensitive to impact or friction, react dangerously with other
substances, and cause eye injury.
A product may also be classified as a combination of more that
one of the classes listed above.
The substances and articles classified as dangerous goods are
specified in the regulations to be applied to maritime transport of
dangerous goods in packaged form, the IMDG Code
(International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code), which has been
incorporated in Swedish legislation. Test shall be performed on the
product according to criteria set in the IMDG Code to determine
whether substances and articles not listed in the code are
Consignor: The consignor is the entity which
gives dangerous goods to another for carriage or which carries such
goods on own account.
The regulations for carriage of dangerous goods in packaged form
on the road and by air (ADR, RID and ICAO-TI) apply essentially the
same criteria for classification of dangerous goods. This means
that most products have the same classification regardless of the
mode of transport used for carriage. There are certain differences
however, in part due to that goods are exposed to different risks
and stresses depending on mode of transport.
With regard to maritime transport of dangerous goods, a
distinction is made between packaged goods and
goods carried in bulk. Packaged goods are enclosed
in containers (e.g. barrels, pails, boxes, vehicles, containers),
while bulk carriage means that the goods are loaded directly into
the cargo hold of the ship with no other containment, i.e.,
unpackaged, and often in large lots.